|Lycopus (American Bugleweed, Lycopus americanus)
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|Author:||DougA. [ Wed Mar 28, 2018 3:28 pm ]|
|Post subject:||Lycopus (American Bugleweed, Lycopus americanus)|
From the 1912 text, Hypodermic Medication by Frank Webb, MD
(American Bugleweed, Lycopus americanus)
In Spec. Med. Lycopus we have the most valuable anti-hemorrhagic that the materia medica of our, or any other, school of medicine contains. I do not care from what cause the hemorrhage arises, it will stop it if it can be stopped, and it makes no difference whether it be active or passive.
My first experience with Lycopus was in a case of hemoptysis. I had used adrenalin solution and other means. I gave small doses of Lycopus by mouth, but it did not control it but for a short time. Finally I took my hypodermic syringe, put in fifteen drops of Spec. Med. Lycopus and injected it into the arm. It caused temporary burning and pain, but it stopped the hemorrhage instantly, and the patient never had another attack, although she died from phthisis afterwards. Now this is not my only case. I have had fifteen in which I have used it with the same success, so I depend upon Spec. Med. Lycopus hypodermically every time in such cases.
In hematuria, whether active or passive, it will act favorably. I have been called to patients who had been pronounced past help, but a few doses of Spec. Med. Lycopus, used hypodermically, would stop the hemorrhage almost immediately.
A short time ago I was called to a case of hematuria that was caused by a renal calculus. I administered one hypodermic injection of thirty drops of Spec. Med. Lycopus and the hematuria ceased. In this case adrenalin and other solutions had been used, but they only gave temporary relief, while that caused by the hypodermic was permanent. The patient was afterwards operated upon, and a large renal calculus, very ragged, was taken from his right kidney.
A case of dysmenorrhea had been under my care for some time, and would not yield to any of the treatments which I had tried, although I had used all the remedies of our materia medica and some from those of other schools. Finally, almost in despair, I gave her thirty drops of Spec. Med. Lycopus hypodermically, which, to my surprise, gave her relief. This treatment was given each month at the commencement of the menses, for three months, with the result that the patient has had no trouble since. It was a chronic case of long standing.
In menorrhagia of long standing it will cure many cases. I have tried it with six patients, and it cured every one in from two to eight months. I use thirty drops of the Spec. Med. Lycopus hypodermically, sometimes every 'three hours, and sometimes the single dose is sufficient for that month.
In uterine hemorrhage there is no remedy so certain or reliable as the Spec. Med. Lycopus. I have stopped hemorrhages that arise from the last stages of cancer with the Spec. Med. Lycopus.
One case in particular had been given up to die by another physician. I was called and immediately injected thirty drops of Spec. Med. Lycopus hypodermically. This was followed with four other doses of fifteen drops each every fifteen minutes. The hemorrhage ceased and never returned. The patient lived for four months and had no more trouble from hemorrhages.
In epistaxis we have no drug that is the equal of Spec. Med. Lycopus. I have controlled it time and time again with this remedy. There is one case in particular that I wish to call to your attention.
An old and prominent physician of my own city — Dr. M.— was taken with a severe case of epistaxis. He called me after trying several hours to stop it himself. I was out of town and another physician was called in my place, who advised plugging the nose with a weak solution of hamamelis, and he gave him one drop of hamamelis every half hour, which, of course, did not do the slightest good. Then they telephoned to my office to see if I had returned. On being told that I was not expected until late in the afternoon they called in a specialist. Returning about three o'clock, and being told of the circumstances, I immediately went to the house and found the old doctor in a very weak state. The plug that the specialist had used was not large enough, so that the blood would drop and sometimes trickle from the artery. When I learned that they had called the specialist, I at once summoned him to the house, and after consultation we decided to introduce a plug into the posterior nares. At last we obtained the old doctor's consent. It stopped the hemorrhage for about six hours. The specialist had used as strong a solution of adrenalin chloride as he dared, and it, as usual, failed in such cases. The next morning I called about 7.30 and found the good old man in despair. He had started to bleed from the other nostril, and had given up all hopes of recovery. I said to him, "Now, doctor, who shall take the case, the specialist, who says that he has done all that can be done, or I?" He said, "I want Dr. Webb to take it." I at once removed the plug that caused a deal of pain and discomfort, and which did not exert pressure enough to stop the hemorrhage. I told him that I should hurt him some. I filled my hypodermic syringe with Spec. Med. Lycopus and injected it into his arm. In about five minutes the hemorrhage began to grow less. I repeated the injection in fifteen minutes; this time I used thirty drops, and the hemorrhage ceased. I injected another dose of thirty drops at night, and one of the same size the following morning. He had lost at least three quarts of blood in all. It was the most severe case of epistaxis that I ever saw in a person that recovered. It was caused by a rupture of a hardened artery. The old man got out again and practised medicine for about two months. He contracted a heavy cold, which developed into pneumonia, and in his weak state he could not stand the strain and died from edema of the lungs. I have had several cases of this kind since, but none so severe as this. I had one in an old woman from arterio sclerosis, but I took it at the start and checked it after she had lost about four ounces of blood.
The hemorrhage caused by polypi can also be stopped with Spec. Med. Lycopus used hypodermically quicker than by any other method.
When you are called to a case of hemorrhage from any cause do not neglect the use of Spec. Med. Lycopus hypodermically. It will smart and burn some, but it will control the hemorrhage every time.
Specific Indications: Hemorrhage with frequent feeble pulse with rapid, irregular, and labored action of the heart and a blanched skin, with cold extremities. Passive congestion of the capillaries. A tendency to raising blood from the lungs or the passing of it through the kidneys. In all menstrual derangements where there is a profuse flow.
|Author:||DougA. [ Wed Mar 28, 2018 7:21 pm ]|
|Post subject:||Re: Lycopus (American Bugleweed, Lycopus americanus)|
Scudder, 1898: American Eclectic Materia Medica and Therapeutics. > Division II. Class V. Sedatives.
Botanical name: Lycopus virginicus
The herb of Lycopus virginicus.
Preparation.—A tincture of the root.
Dose.—The dose will vary from the fraction of a drop to ten drops.
Therapeutic Action.—The Lycopus is sedative, tonic, astringent, narcotic, and diaphoretic; it is one of our many valuable indigenous medicinal agents. In a certain class of diseases we regard it as a valuable therapeutic agent; yet it is not extensively employed, and by the majority of practitioners, it is not used at all. The properties which it possesses seem to be happily blended together, and to adapt it to the relief of certain morbid symptoms in a remarkable manner. It is a mild sedative narcotic, feebly tonic and moderately astringent.
The Lycopus may be associated with the Eupatorium and other pectoral agents, and administered in pulmonary complaints with great advantage. In drop doses it frequently proves an admirable remedy for the relief of irritative cough in chronic disease of the lungs.
It is employed in all cases of excessive vascular excitement with great advantage. Its mild and congenial sedative properties render it a remedy of great value in lessening tumultuous action. For this purpose it has been employed in febrile and inflammatory affections; more especially in the various forms of pneumonia. In these diseases its mild sedative and narcotic properties render it peculiarly valuable in lessening general irritation and diminishing exalted organic action. In acute diseases of this character, and in the chronic diseases of the respiratory organs attended with hemorrhage, it is very useful. In those diseases of a chronic character, in cases where there is a frequent hemorrhage or a tendency to hemorrhage from these organs in the incipient forms of phthisis, or even when the complaint is somewhat advanced, and even in the confirmed stages of that complaint, the sedative and tranquilizing influences of the Lycopus, together with its mild tonic and astringent properties, render it an agent of very great importance. It somewhat lessens the momentum of the circulation, the irritability and excitability of the nervous and vascular systems, and hence controls febrile excitement, and lessens the heat of the body; it lessens irritation in the lungs and consequently the harassing and exhausting cough; and if the patient is the subject of hemorrhage from the lungs, it lessens vascular excitement, and the quantity of blood that circulates in the lungs in a given time, and in this way the irritation and the cough; and in the advanced stages of the disease, when the expectoration is copious and debilitating, the sedative, astringent and tonic influences of the Lycopus point to it as an invaluable palliative remedy, if not a curative agent in all such cases. Its properties can not injure under any circumstances of the kind, and it may be resorted to with a strong probability of at least mitigating all the urgent symptoms, and even of effecting a cure.
It may be used in debility and irritability of the nervous system, and in either acute or chronic diseases attended with wakefulness and morbid vigilance. It has been used as a tonic in general debility, and also indigestion, though but seldom used in this case unless attended with pain and distress in the epigastric region. It is used by some to purify the blood in cases of old ulcers, and at the same time the ulcers are to be washed or cleansed with the infusion. It is also simmered in fresh butter, sweet oil or linseed oil, and a little beeswax added to form an ointment, which has been found useful in burns and irritable ulcers.
The American Eclectic Materia Medica and Therapeutics, 1898, was written by John M. Scudder, M.D.
|Author:||DougA. [ Wed Mar 28, 2018 7:22 pm ]|
|Post subject:||Re: Lycopus (American Bugleweed, Lycopus americanus)|
A note on lycopus europaeus in the May number of the Summary reminds me of lycopus virginicus used by our school of practice. The remedy is a valuable one in conditions not amenable to other treatment.
The drug produces a rapid, tumultuous, weakened heart action, with venous stasis. Rheumatic pains involving the heart, hemoptysis, and hemorrhoidal bleeding are also symptoms developed in the proving.
The remedial action of lycopus virginicus is especially marked in exophthalmus, goiter and conditions simulating that without the goiter. It is said we have Graves's disease with any two of the three prominent symptoms (rapid pulse, exophthalmus, goiter) present. I have seen cases which seemed to be Graves's disease, but the two most diagnostic symptoms— exophthalmus and goiter—were absent. The heart symptoms are the same as produced by lycopus virginicus, and that remedy is, therefore, curative. Indeed, severe cases of Graves's disease have been cured or greatly benefited by this remedy under my personal observation.
The symptoms which specifically indicate the use of this remedy are those mentioned above, with dyspnoea, wheezing, cough, anemia, palpitation, rheumatic pains, and great nervousness.
The condition of the circulation is such as to suggest the use of digitalis, but it does little or no good—surely no permanent good. The pains about the heart remind us of aconite, kalmia latifolia, rhus tox., and spigelia. Intercostal pains remind us of cimicifuga, ranunculus, rhododendron and rhus tox. The condition of the venous system leads us to compare collinsonia, hamamelis, pulsatilla and carbo veg. An extreme condition would require the consideration of veratrum album and hydrocyanic acid. The cause of a similar condition might be such that we would select arnica instead of lycopus.
Not that these remedies can be used interchangeably or together, but the one right remedy must be selected according to specific conditions, comprising all of the symptoms present. A choice must be made between lycopus virginicus and the remedies mentioned in the foregoing list which have similar symptoms. If spigelia is the right remedy lycopus virginicus will do no good. If lycopus is the right remedy, the drug that would produce a similar condition in a healthy person, then it is the only one which will act curatively.— Homeopathic Recorder.
Ellingwood's Therapeutist, Vol. 3, 1909, was edited by Finley Ellingwood M.D.
|Author:||DougA. [ Wed Mar 28, 2018 7:24 pm ]|
|Post subject:||Re: Lycopus (American Bugleweed, Lycopus americanus)|
Related entries: Leonurus
The whole herb of Lycopus virginicus, Linné.
COMMON NAMES: Bugleweed, Sweet bugle, Water bugle, etc. (see below).
Botanical Source.—This plant is an indigenous, perennial herb, with a fibrous root, and a smooth, straight, obtusely four-angled stem, with the sides concave, producing slender runners from the base, and 10 to 20 inches in height. The leaves are opposite, oblong, or ovate lanceolate, toothed, entire toward the base, with glandular dots underneath. The flowers are very small, purplish, in dense, axillary whorls; at the base of each flower are two small, subulate bracts. The corolla is campanulate, 4-cleft, the tube as long as the calyx, upper segment broadest, and emarginate. The calyx is tubular, 4-cleft, longer than the achenia. Stamens 2, distant, diverging, and simple; anthers erect and bilobed; ovary superior and 4-angled; style straight and slender; stigma bilobate; achenia 4, smooth, obovate, obliquely truncate at apex, compressed, and margins thickened (G.—W.—R.).
History.—Lycopus belongs to a class of perennial herbs somewhat resembling the mints, but lacking their aroma and having but 2 perfect stamens. It is found growing in almost all parts of the United States, being very common, and preferring moist, shady places, showing particular fondness for wet, boggy soils. It grows from 6 to 18 inches in height, and, like most labiate plants, has a straight, smooth, square stem (obtusely 4-angled), with concave sides, supporting opposite, oblong, ovate or lanceolate, serrately-toothed leaves, having on their under surface small, glandular dots. The entire plant is smooth and often purplish, and the stem occasionally sends off long, slender runners. The flowers, which appear in midsummer (July and August), are very small, and arranged in dense, axillary whorls, or capitate clusters of a purplish color. The whole plant has an agreeable, yet peculiar balsamic, terebinthinate odor, and to most persons, a disagreeable, slightly bitter, balsamic taste. Its virtues are supposed to depend upon a volatile oil and tannin.
Lycopus is popularly known as Bugleweed, Water bugle, Sweet bugle, Water hoarhound, Gypsy-weed, Paul's betony, Green ashangee and Archangel, though the latter name is oftener applied to another plant—the Archangelica Atropurpurea. The name lycopus originates from two Greek words—lukus, wolf; and pous, foot; hence wolf-foot, so called because of a fancied resemblance of the cut leaves to a wolf's foot.
We have evidence that this plant was used early in the present century as a medicine. Schoepf, Ives, and Zollikoffer mention it. In 1828, Rafinesque, whose works were prominently recognized by the early Eclectics, notwithstanding the many liberties he took in his writings on scientific subjects, gave the best account of its introduction into medicine. He wrote of it that it was an excellent sedative, subtonic, subnarcotic, and subastringent. He further states that it is described as partaking of the properties of digitalis, sanguinaria, cimicifuga, and spigelia; but it is neither diuretic nor anthelmintic, and is rather one of the mildest and best narcotics in existence." The same author claimed "it acts somewhat like digitalis without producing any of its bad effects or accumulating in the system." He complains that volumes have been written on fox-glove, a rank poison, while this excellent substitute has been allowed to pass almost unnoticed.
Among the first to investigate the properties of bugleweed were Drs. Pendleton and Rogers, of New York, who published several cases of hemoptysis and incipient consumption cured by it. In Rafinesque's day it was used to a considerable extent in New York and New Jersey.; in the latter state being much employed as a remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery. Rafinesque pointed out that it acted chiefly on the blood vessels, and was especially useful in plethoric and inflammatory states, particularly internal inflammations resulting from inebriety, and for cardiac diseases. While he did not believe that it would cure phthisis, be stated that it was very valuable for hemoptysis, and that it acted on the circulatory system as a sedative, slowing the pulse and thereby allaying irritation and cough.
Until recent years, lycopus has been scarcely mentioned by allopathic writers. It was introduced into homoeopathic practice by the late Prof E. M. Hale, M. D., of Chicago, who first used it on the recommendation of an Eclectic physician in a case of incipient phthisis, for its control over the circulatory apparatus, with marked benefit. At present it is considerably employed by the homoeopathic branch of the profession. Since nearly all that has been written on this drug has come from Eclectic pens, we may safely claim the remedy as one of Eclectic development.
Chemical Composition.—The Messrs. Tilden found this plant to contain tannic acid, organic and inorganic matters, bitter principle, and a peculiar principle. Mr. J. L. Weil (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1890, p. 72) found in it a fat (0.41 per cent) melting at 50° C. (122° F.), a granular, wax-like body (0.68 per cent) fusing at 70° C. (158° F.); a crystalline resin (0.43 per cent) soluble in ether; small amounts of tannic and gallic acids, and a crystallizable glucosid obtainable by extracting an alcoholic extract of the drug with ether. It readily splits into resin and sugar. The herb contains a small quantity (0.075 per cent) of volatile oil (Hennessy' Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1889, p. 70; Schimmel's Report, Oct., 1890, p. 62).
Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Lycopus fills an important place in Eclectic therapeutics. Its action is chiefly exhibited on the vascular structures and the sympathetic nervous system. It is a certain sedative, mild narcotic, subastringent, and tonic. Its sedative action is most pronounced and most frequently indicated where the vascular action is tumultuous, the velocity of the pulse rapid, with evident want of cardiac power. It is for this purpose that it is principally employed in advanced stages of acute disease with great debility, and in chronic disease with frequent pulse. It improves the circulation, and its good influence is extended to all the parts under the control of the vegetative system of nerves. As a sedative, Prof. Scudder classes it with aconite and veratrum. It acts somewhat like digitalis in reducing the velocity of the pulse, but is devoid of the dangerous effects resulting from the use of that drug, and hence has proved useful in some cardiac affections. It controls excessive vascular excitement, general irritability, and diminishes exalted organic action. Upon the stomach its action is kindly, improving the appetite, and serving as a mild gastric tonic. Normal secretion is established by it, and blood-making and nutrition are improved.
Lycopus is a remedy for morbid vigilance and insomnia attendant upon either acute or chronic disease. As a remedy for painful and distressing forms of indigestion, the specific lycopus will be found advantageous as well as a mild tonic in general debility. In the past it has been employed to purify the blood of patients suffering from old ulcers, an infusion being employed locally at the same time. Bugleweed, simmered with fresh butter or petrolatum, may be employed as a topical dressing for burns and irritable ulcers.
Several cases of diabetes mellitus have been reported, through the Eclectic Medical Journal, as benefited by lycopus. Dr. Gerald (1878) reported an extraordinary case as cured by it, but does not specify which variety of diabetes the patient was afflicted with. Prof. Edwin Freeman, M. D. (1879) used the drug with remarkable results in a case of diabetes, though be did not have the good fortune to see the disease cured, as the patient, who was rapidly improving, moved away and the doctor lost track of the case. Other successful cases were reported by Dr. Ray. Lycopus has proved a good remedy in some cases of albuminuria with great irritation and rapid action of the heart. It has given good results in hemorrhages, being particularly adapted to those cases in which the bleeding is frequent but small in amount. Under such conditions specific lycopus is valuable in hemoptysis, epistaxis, hematemesis, hematuria, and uterine and intestinal hemorrhage.
Its therapy in gastro-intestinal affections is worthy of notice. We have already noticed its use in indigestion. In dysentery and diarrhoea it may be given with advantage to the patient. It is of special value in the diarrhoea of phthisis, and is equally valuable to allay irritation and inflammation in gastritis and enteritis. especially those acute gastric disturbances and inflammatory diseases common to the drunkard. Bugleweed has been used both for its sedative effects and for its influence on the gastro-intestinal troubles accompanying intermittent fevers.
Cardiac disease, both organic and functional, have been markedly impressed by lycopus. Administered to patients suffering from endocarditis and pericarditis it quickly subdues the inflammation. It is a good remedy for cardiac palpitation, dependent on irritation of the cardiac nerve centers, or when arising from organic lesions. It is best adapted to those forms of heart disease characterized by irritability and irregularity, with dyspnoea and praecordial oppression. Lycopus powerfully increases the contraction of the unstriped muscular fibers, particularly those of the heart and arteries, hence its value in cardiac dilatation and hypertrophy which have been known to undergo marked improvement under its administration. It quickly relieves the suffering and anxiety nearly always experienced in heart diseases. It has favorably influenced exophthalmic goitre.
"Bugleweed is of great value in acute pulmonary complaints, and of still greater utility in chronic lung troubles. It acts as a gentle sedative and tonic. It reduces the frequency and force of the heart's action, and is indicated in pulmonary lesions with irritation and cough, and with tendency to hemorrhage. It is particularly valuable in chronic cases with copious secretion of mucus or muco-pus. It lessens irritation, allays the distressing cough so frequently encountered in chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, and consumption. By its action as a nervine it gives rest and quiets pain. By its control over the circulatory apparatus it slows the pulse and brings down the temperature. Tumultuous action of the heart and consequent increase of the circulation through the lungs are controlled by it. It may be employed in acute cases to control fever and inflammation. Here it gives rest, alleviates the pain, quiets the vascular excitement, besides allaying the irritative cough. It is one of our very best remedies for hemoptysis, especially in those cases where the bleeding is small in amount yet frequent, or it may be administered to prevent the tendency to hemorrhage in phthisis. In consumption it is a splendid remedy to relieve the distressing symptoms, and may be administered in drop doses every hour. It is valuable in acute as well as chronic pneumonia. In ordinary acute catarrh it may be administered with aconite, eupatorium, and other indicated agents. It is indicated by chronic cough, mucous or muco-purulent expectoration, frequent pulse, high temperature, tubercular deposits, and albuminuria, with vascular excitement" (Felter).
For pulmonary hemorrhage, lycopus combined with cinnamon and ipecac, is the best remedy with which we are acquainted. Dose of the powder, from 1 to 2 drachms; of the infusion (℥i to aqua Oj), from 2 drachms to 4 fluid ounces; of a strong tincture (℥viii to alcohol Oj) of the recent plant, from 5 to 60 minims; of specific lycopus, 1 to 30 minims.
Specific Indications and Uses.—Vascular excitement; hemorrhage, in small amounts, resulting from determination of blood to the lungs, kidneys, or gastro-intestinal organs; albuminuria, with frequent pulse; cough, with copious expectoration of mucus or muco-pus, especially debilitating chronic cough; wakefullness and morbid vigilance, with inordinately active circulation; frequent pulse, with high temperature, and in tubercular deposits.
Related Species.—Lycopus europaeus, Linné; Water horehound.—A European plant introduced into this country, is said to possess febrifuge properties, curing severe intermittents in doses of 1 or 2 drachms of the powdered plant, every 2 or 4 hours. It has been confounded with the L. virginicus, with which it is frequently collected, but may be discriminated by its stem being more acutely 4-angled, its leaves not so broad, the lower being somewhat feather-cleft, its flowers more closely grouped, and the calyx divisions presenting short spines. This plant undoubtedly possesses many of the properties of Lycopus virginicus.
King's American Dispensatory, 1898, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.
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