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 Post subject: Ultrasonic Extraction
PostPosted: Wed Feb 15, 2017 5:01 pm 
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Ultrasonic Extraction


I would like to suggest to you herbalists that if you happen to own a simple ultrasonic cleaning unit, the kind often used to clean tools, jewelry, etc ---that this machine can be invaluable in your herbal extraction processes! It is very efficient in adding an energy form to your traditional macerates. It will disrupt the cellular wall matrix of your plant material and release the desirable components into your menstruum.

In general, ultrasound can lead to a permeabilization of cell membranes to ions (Mummery 1978), and it can reduce the selectivity of the cell membranes significantly. The mechanical activity of the ultrasound supports the diffusion of solvents into the tissue. As ultrasound breaks the cell wall mechanically by the cavitation shear forces, it facilitates the transfer from the cell into the solvent. The particle size reduction by the ultrasonic cavitation increases the surface area in contact between the solid and the liquid phase.

The beneficial effects of ultrasonic treatment on the liberation of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from grape and berry matrix, in particular from bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) and black currants (Ribes nigrum) into juice, was investigated by VTT Biotechnology, Finland (MAXFUN EU-Project) using an ultrasonic processor UIP2000 after thawing, mashing and enzyme incubation. The disruption of the cell walls by enzymatic treatment (Pectinex BE-3L for bilberries and Biopectinase CCM for black currents) was improved when combined with ultrasound enhances. "US treatment increase the concentration of phenolic compounds of bilberry juice by more than 15%. [...] The influence of US (ultrasound) was more significant with black currants, which are more challenging berries in juice processing than bilberries due to their high content of pectin and different cell wall architecture. [...] the concentration of phenolic compounds in the juice increased by 15-25% by using US (ultrasound) treatment after enzyme incubation." (Mokkila et al. 2004)



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Abstract: ObjectiveTo study the effect of instantaneous ultrasonic extraction on polyphenols in Chinese herbs, evaluate this technique, and create the regression equation.MethodsInstantaneous ultrasonic extraction was used to extract polyphenol separately from herbs of Phyllantuus urinaria L., leaves of Camellia sinensis L. and root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Gallic acid, EGCG and Salvianic acid were determined by HPLC. The uniform design and multi-linear regression were applied to obtain the equation about the relationship between process parameters and polyphenol yield rate, and optimize the process conditions. Energy consumption of the technique was calculated. ResultsPolyphenol content extracted by this method could be 1 ~ 3 times or 1 ~ 5 times more than that extracted by water boiling for 10 min or ultrasonic extraction for 1h. The energy consumption in water boiling extraction for 2h was 60 times more than in instantaneous ultrasonic extraction for 10 min. The regression equations were different in various herbs, and all were obviously affected by granularity. Conclusion Instantaneous ultrasonic extraction is the technique with high efficiency and low energy consumption, it is practicable to be used in extraction of polyphenols in Chinese herbs.

Chinese extract is the most important aspects of the pharmaceutical process. Now are using the traditional Chinese medicine from the boiling process, generally water or alcohol as a solvent, refluxing 1 ~ 2 h and extracted 2 or 3 times. This process not only consumption energy, but also heat-sensitive active ingredients causing major damage. so it is necessary to reform the traditional heat extraction Technology and innovation. low temperature and fast heat-sensitive components can reduce the damage. cold extraction, super-critical fluid extraction can be achieved cold extraction, microwave extraction for fast extraction. but direct cold soak extraction rate. Although the super-critical extraction was higher, but still requires a certain temperature and pressure, and the large Investment in equipment [1]. Microwave extraction temperatures are high, not for a long time operation, due to equipment constraints, there are certain difficulties in extracting a large number of [2]. Ultrasonic extraction as a low temperature extraction technology, the mechanical effects of ultrasonic cavitation effect, enhanced the release of intra-cellular material, diffusion and dissolution, accelerated the effective the leaching of components [3]. but for a long time ultrasound will increase the ambient temperature, is detrimental to the heat-sensitive active ingredients. Therefore the instantaneous ultrasonic extraction Research is important.

Polyphenols are a class of active ingredients of Chinese medicine, conditions susceptible to oxidation in the heat damage. As the main active ingredient in tea catechins [4], the main ingredient in Salvia Sal [5], Phyllanthus The main component of gallic acid [6]. This study of polyphenols as a starting point to study the transient ultrasonic extraction process parameter optimization, model fitting and energy analysis, energy-saving help to develop a new technique for extracting .

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PostPosted: Wed Feb 15, 2017 5:03 pm 
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Joined: Wed May 27, 2015 10:20 am
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Ultrasonic extraction is considered one of the simplest extraction techniques because it is easy to perform in common laboratory equipment (i.e. ultrasonic bath). In this method, the crushed sample is mixed with the suitable solvent and placed into the ultrasonic bath, where the working temperature and extraction time are set. Ultrasound can enhance existing extraction processes and enable new commercial extraction opportunities and processes. The main targets have been polyphenols and carotenoids and in both aqueous and solvent extraction systems. The ultrasound extraction trials have demonstrated improvements in extraction yield ranging from 6 to 35%.


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