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 Post subject: Peer Reviewed Studies
PostPosted: Sat Aug 17, 2019 9:40 am 
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https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/ ... edirect=on


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Just as peer review fails to detect funding sources, it often also fails to catch ghostwriting, in which companies draft articles for academics who go on to publish them under their own names, sometimes with few or no changes. The editor of one journal told the Senate Finance Committee in 2010 that he suspected that at least a third of the papers submitted to his journal were ghostwritten by public relations agencies and paid for by pharmaceutical companies. Such articles have appeared in dozens of journals, and ghostwriting scandals have involved professors at the University of Pennsylvania, Brown and Harvard. Last year, court documents revealed that Monsanto ghostwrote articles that were published in peer-reviewed journals to counter research on the carcinogenicity of the pesticide glyphosate and to attack regulatory bodies.

Peer review has also sometimes stymied important research. Senior scientists are more likely to be asked to assess submissions, and they can shoot down articles that conflict with their own views. As a result, peer review can act as a shield to protect the status quo and suppress research viewed as radical or contrary to the established perspectives of referees. A 2015 study of 1,000 medical journal submissions found that of the papers that were eventually published, the 14 that became the most frequently cited were initially rejected. Groundbreaking studies by Sir Frank MacFarlane Burnet, Rosalind Yalow, Baruch Blumberg and others were rejected by peer reviewers, yet later led to Nobel Prizes.

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PostPosted: Tue Apr 07, 2020 11:11 am 
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All Medical discoveries were first observed as anecdotal observations!

Some break throughs that were anecdotal:

Antiseptic Handwashing

Newborn Incubators

Balloon Angioplasty

Viruses and Cancer

Helicobacter pylori and ulcers

Infectious Proteins (prions)

Germs Cause Disease

Heredity

Cancer Immunotherapy

Traumatic Brain Injuries in Sports

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Although medical science most often advances incrementally on the basis of an ever-accumulating body of evidence, occasionally leaps forward are made.

And quite often these leaps fly in the face of conventional wisdom. Today's standard of care was yesterday's experimental treatment, and before that, in many cases, it was one man or woman's visionary idea.

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